One handy way of thinking of it is as "inference to the best explanation". 0000003779 00000 n Abductive reasoning in logistics research. Inductive is a research approach which the researcher utilizes for performing investigation on such type of researchtopic on which there is little or no existing literature that exists. Low cost airlines always have d… 0000001180 00000 n 0000002005 00000 n P2: One morning a prison officer walks by the cell and sees one standing over the dead body of the other. Remember, for this to work, both statements must be true. endstream endobj 292 0 obj <>stream H�b```f``������6�A�X��,���M���5�f�����}�n���X�p�A���'Ϝ�3�$���ܹ��x6�.|!��أ�}n��1�`��� 9Y9���_P��ʓt��p� }v�a���ro��$ss��)c;���V�=�'Qi��t�K�y���M���6n���Ť����� ���p IF W$�� &!l��T���������'h00�ViE ���20�b��x��.3]��W1�`���! Inductive approach . All mammals have kidneys. Martin Lipscomb RN PhD. Abductive Reasoning: Explanation and Diagnosis. Tel. Observation 1.1. Elephants depend on water to exist 2. 0000003800 00000 n In an everyday scenario, you may be puzzled by a half-eaten sandwich on the kitchen counter. See red line in Figure 1. You can do deductive reasoning while sitting in your armchair. Abductive reasoning leads the young researcher to assume that temperature determines the rate of mold growth , as the hypothesis that would best fit the evidence, if true. Observe a pattern 2.1. Nevertheless, situating abduction in qualitative research facilitates the identification of three interlinked issues. %PDF-1.3 %���� Abduction as a methodological approach to the study of spoken interaction Jan Svennevig Studies of spoken interaction generally proceed in one of two ways: either an explicit theory of communication and interaction is used as the basis for analyzing actual instances of talk, or conversational data are taken as the point of departure for formulating new theoretical concepts and rules. It focuses on s mall samples. Now someone tells you that she just sawTim and Harry jogging together. In abductive approach, the research process starts with ‘surprising facts’ or ‘puzzles’ and the research process is devoted their explanation[2]. 0000006802 00000 n The content of your research summary must briefly discuss the techniques and tools used in the research and the importance of the resear… P1: Two rival gang members are locked up together, one a blood, the other a crip. allow alternative explanations. Inductive reasoning helps in producing meaning from the information which the researcher has to accumulate from different sources. It starts with an observation or set of observations and then seeks to find the simplest and most likely conclusion from the observations. 0000004582 00000 n It is a personal interview that is carried out with one respondent at a time. When following an abductive approach, researcher seeks to choose the ‘best’ explanation among … abductive form of argument is entirely valid, especially when the research goal is to discover plausible explanations for further inquiry (de Regt, 1994). However, it. C: The gang member was murdered by his rival. Also, read about qualitative research examples: 1. Quantitative Research is used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into usable statistics. ��=���@+�q%�31X�x�����0�a���R�3��Ҁ�i{&ȓ@� ` > endobj 58 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 59 0 R /TT4 60 0 R /TT6 68 0 R /TT8 78 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 86 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 63 0 R >> >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 146 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 722 0 0 0 778 0 0 0 0 0 944 0 0 611 0 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 0 556 278 833 556 500 556 0 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /HCGPDE+TimesNewRoman,Bold /FontDescriptor 62 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 248 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 778 0 333 333 0 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 0 0 0 444 0 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 0 667 556 611 722 0 944 0 722 0 333 0 333 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 444 444 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /HCGPEK+TimesNewRoman /FontDescriptor 61 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 656 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2028 1007 ] /FontName /HCGPEK+TimesNewRoman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 94 /XHeight 0 /FontFile2 87 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -558 -307 2034 1026 ] /FontName /HCGPDE+TimesNewRoman,Bold /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 /XHeight 0 /FontFile2 85 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj [ /ICCBased 84 0 R ] endobj 64 0 obj 683 endobj 65 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 64 0 R >> stream %PDF-1.5 %���� :/�u�\Қ�4��G��U �Eq�v}-Y�]����Fv�ԃ�Z�"U��}�Y���/9{�e=�7�G�ۭ�����R5��&�B�Ķ@����.�a��xt2��|��������o��'��=���Y��i�G^���zpd1� the heart of how you see the work that you do and how you understand it. If you have formulated a set of hypotheses for your dissertation that need to be confirmed or rejected during the research process you would be following a deductive approach. Research Approach R esearch approaches are plans and the procedures for research that span the steps from broad assumptions to detailed methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Inductive research will allow you to provide the justifiable reason for specific situations by providing examples of real life. One of the advantages of this method … International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 35(2), 132-144. 294 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<2A1A685395EB1E1850CD71876DDE9CC2>]/Index[288 13]/Info 287 0 R/Length 51/Prev 1190738/Root 289 0 R/Size 301/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream This is purely a conversational method and invites opportunities to get details in depth from the respondent. Having a good template for a research summary is nothing if you don’t know its importance and basic function. researcher roles, you tell who you are and what theorized approach you will take in your research work. All observed dogs have fleas 2.3. Let's say you're a juror and the defendant looks like the image of … In fact, research paradigms often present the answers, in the form of beliefs and feelings, h�b```f``Rb`2�02 � P9�=&pv̜p��#��u3��S����7���bLc0��S�s�jHk�K��_�ǫ�e2��Yi[�}��5�4%ce#ecccc#%aY��`"��=���JY�e!6�&B���98�"888@��Wtt04���wt���\��!� >�H;�Bџ����e����t�WɃ��������4#��]!k}�Q � ��\A Deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning are three basic reasoning types. h�bbd``b`f� ��� �π��2&F�� Ft�?ê? %%EOF 0 ‘Surprising facts’ or ‘puzzles’ may emerge when a researchers encounters with an empirical phenomena that cannot be explained by the existing range of theories. 0000010232 00000 n deductions that followed from Newton's theory of gravity). Deductive reasoning can be used very effectively in combination with a powerful new theory (e.g. 0000009044 00000 n For example, A is equal to B. It can be seen as a way of generating explanations of a phenomena meeting certain conditions. 0000009478 00000 n ���\�������LRL~N������5�.�M�O������l� C,�Xk���t��1��v`�,�?�HD���xcq�R��Ɩ^!h3=���8 ev�~�� b. The sample size is typically small, and respondents are selected to fulfil a given quota. All dolphins are mammals. The inductive approach consists of three stages: 1. While in inductive reasoning there is a requirement that would explain the subject completely and fairly, weather positive or negative. 0000003280 00000 n Abductive argument example #1. Overview: Abductive Reasoning: Function: Logic. In this article, we discuss the difficulties and opportunities characterizing the case study approach. Abductive reasoning in logistics research, Kovács, G., & Spens, K. M. (2005). In simple terms, deductive reasoning deals with certainty, inductive reasoning with probability, and abductive reasoning with guesswork.These three methods of reasoning, which all other reasoning types essentially fall under or are a mix of, can be a little tricky to illustrate with examples… because each can work a variety of ways (thus any one example tends to … 0000006823 00000 n The researcher basically uses an inductive approach to research fo… Abductive research gains daily decision making which has the best information, but incomplete. A familiar example of abduction is a detective's identification of a criminal by piecing together evidence at a crime scene. Corresponding Author . Case studies are frequently used in industrial network research. Abductive reasoning (also called abduction, abductive inference, or retroduction) is a form of logical inference formulated and advanced by American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce beginning in the last third of the 19th century. Another 20 flights from low-cost airlines are delayed 2.2. Abduction will lead you to the best explanation. Dogs A and B have fleas 1.3. 0000003740 00000 n For example, medical evaluations may begin by considering the mostly likely conditions that can explain a set of symptoms. 288 0 obj <> endobj Now, let’s look at a real-life example. 0000001606 00000 n Abductive reasoning comes in various guises. Deductive reasoning involves inferring that if propositions A and B are both true, then this implies that C is also true. One-on-one interview: Conducting in-depth interviews is one of the most common qualitative research methods. If there’s a set of symptoms, what diagnosis would explain them best? This plan involves several decisions, and they need not be taken in the order in which they make sense to me and the order of their presentation here. This is mainly because, in Grounded theory, the focus is on creating new knowledge through a cyclic process. In particular, we deal with single case research aiming at theory development. Basically, it involves forming a conclusion from the information that is known. focuses on the interpretation of the human and does not . 300 0 obj <>stream endstream endobj startxref Develop a theory 3.1. 0000005810 00000 n Before you start writing your research summary, you should first know its fundamentals on the areas you need to pay attention to such as its content, style and organization. 0000010731 00000 n A medical diagnosis is the best application of Abductive research. In such type of investigation, the researcher begins research by observing things and investigator design theory after completion of the study. B is also equal to C. Given those two statements, you can conclude A is equal to C using deductive reasoning. 0000005285 00000 n For this purpose, we suggest an approach based on ‘systematic combining’ grounded in an ‘abductive’ logic. 0000033655 00000 n 0000008350 00000 n Abduction is not, in research, restricted to or associated with any particular methodology. The abductive process can be creative, intuitive, even revolutionary.2 Einstein's work, for example, was not just inductive and deductive, but involved a creative leap of imagination and visualization that scarcely seemed warranted by the mere observation of moving trains and falling elevators. 0000008371 00000 n 0000009499 00000 n endstream endobj 289 0 obj <> endobj 290 0 obj <> endobj 291 0 obj <>stream The best explanation for this that youcan think of is that they made up. H�t��n�0E���Y�E��z��>��F�"F�m52iXt���;á�� 1�\޹<3�~u��h�+]��kP����E�T�j�� ���繁a���Vw_4��U�r�T���������9a��6���O~7fs�_�a��Ӓ�7�� �{�a�C�[��l�Z�7��0��u ��UƦ��US�u�+�Y���=�'ۼ���q�R%. 0000001834 00000 n Abductive reasoning is also a common approach to artificial intelligence. A researcher who steps into the field has an open mind, unbiased, and without preconceived ideas. 0000081973 00000 n Inductive approach, also known in inductive reasoning, starts with the observations and theories are proposed towards the end of the research process as a result of observations.. Inductive research “involves the search for pattern from observation and the development of explanations – theories – for those patterns through series of hypotheses”. Using deductive reasoning, you can conclude that all dolphins have kidneys. ���F�� ��0b�V��,�@�����QP�H��T�(C-I��,��s- �a�Pkm!�e�Ԟ�^�S���K��;��»W��^me��3�,��f;y�v�/���ڦff2��_4C��C���1 �ౠ�p&6Cς��X�s$���Dګ�Ûۗ�s�:��I^�ˢ���é����'�d%��G��y�?����E>+�UQ}+�3����8~_. 0000007550 00000 n 1. 55 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 57 /H [ 1180 447 ] /L 181493 /E 104508 /N 14 /T 180275 >> endobj xref 55 37 0000000016 00000 n You concludethat one of your house-mates g… The classic example is over two thousand years old and involves the question of whether the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates was mortal. 0000007571 00000 n An abductive approach is fruitful if the researcher's objective is to discover new things — other variables and other relationships. 0000006053 00000 n Abductive reasoning and qualitative research. Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of England, Gloucester, UK. 0000002491 00000 n Quantitative Research. The inductive approach begins with the observation of phenomenon and theories which researcher designs after completion of the research procedure. Examples of Abductive Reasoning Jury duty decisions are one example of abductive reasoning. In an inductive approach Collect data, analyze patterns in the data, and then theorize from the data. Abduction is not, in research, restricted to or associated with any particular methodology. 0000006074 00000 n For example, a pupil may have noticed that bread appears to grow mold more quickly in the bread bin than the fridge. All observed animals depend on water to exist 3. OutOut eline • Introduction to Abductive Reasoning • Explanation & Diagnosis • Computing Explanations • Reading Material . Dr Martin Lipscomb, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of the West of England, Gloucester Centre – Hartpury Campus, Gloucester GL19 3BE, UK. �� �5��{�ܛ�j1����OV�M�u�VFK�H�%���f���o'��K\nJ�i]�o�nG_�.��f�ƌ6�+s^ꂊ��n��R�.��w*����ao�~\�����A�B�p*ex��Jn�h$*��_�BPb���g�:��o��LPȃ�)_��n�?�1?1�ۘO���@"+���` ��� 0000004561 00000 n One morning you enter the kitchen to find a plate and cup on thetable, with breadcrumbs and a pat of butter on it, and surrounded by ajar of jam, a pack of sugar, and an empty carton of milk. to research, a researcher begins by collecting data that is relevant to his or her topic of interest. trailer << /Size 92 /Info 53 0 R /Root 56 0 R /Prev 180265 /ID[<9b2cb93cf1b93dd6ef1e8917bc33224f>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 56 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 51 0 R /Metadata 54 0 R /PageLabels 49 0 R >> endobj 90 0 obj << /S 309 /L 421 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 91 0 R >> stream The purpose of the study was to create a framework for discussing three primary research approaches in regards to logistics. Behind a research paradigm, you can find philosophical questions that get at . Problem Solving. In order to make inferences to the best explanation, the researcher must need a set of plausible explanations, and … The abductive approach is to be seen as different from a mixture of deductive and inductive approaches. He derives the research problem mostly from the setting … Critical Thinking: Value: Developing theories to explain observations in the context of uncertainty. Nevertheless, situating abduction in qualitative research facilitates the identification of three interlinked issues. 0000001627 00000 n In fact, so much of Einstein's work was done as a "thought experiment" (for he never experimentally dropped elevators), … hޔR�j�0�=�>duq�����¦j�-����Μ�,IIH�ș�p:�MHsrwG��M9�Z�3����K�҇�},���y,9��L�w��J ��L_�ڮ�꾠�>�M���S�/Ԩ��0����"U;jwXN���K�~0A��A_��~��4u��X�Β�I���nv{K"�{�33�9-Z�I ��b�׳0�dIc�p�� fuh��o�iT�#��)�� The benefits of an inductive approach, as seen for example in grounded theory, are that it allows flexibility, attends closely to context and supports the generation of new theory [see the paper on social loss as example]. 0000033733 00000 n In Abductive reasoning there … 0000001087 00000 n 0000010211 00000 n It can also be used to make inferences from t… Grounded theory by Glaser and Strauss can be considered as a fine example of the inductive approach in research. You conclude that they are friendsagain. j�Y��/�_���F����̨�&��9�� �Ä}*��q���8N�0�i����o摓�r҉&hl4�:$�^�3�r�1R�J&�"� ��B� 0000072891 00000 n You happen to know that Tim and Harry have recently had a terrible rowthat ended their friendship. 0000009264 00000 n 0000013408 00000 n 0000003508 00000 n h޴�OO�@���)�(&���nכ Inductive Approaches and Some Examples. A low-cost airline flight is delayed 1.2. 1�n��x��F�X�}|g�-j ��iC���ߛ�.���1 H,���G�&J�r>��}(�� u֐l�w\����¸�u��H���舘���F���I�(֎��,g+M�J�a�Em When there is little to no existing literature on a topic, it is common to perform inductive research because there is no theory to test. , one a blood, the researcher has to accumulate from different sources not in! Developing theories to explain observations in the context of uncertainty in fact, research paradigms often present the,. Research approaches in regards to logistics Harry have recently had a terrible rowthat ended their friendship common approach to fo…! Be puzzled by a half-eaten sandwich on the kitchen counter and most likely conclusion from the observations decision which... Quantitative research is used to make inferences from t… abductive reasoning are three basic reasoning types:. Know that Tim and Harry have recently had a terrible rowthat ended their.. T… abductive reasoning form of beliefs and feelings, abductive argument example 1... Topic of interest of symptoms different from a mixture of deductive and approaches! Also true other variables and other relationships of England, Gloucester, UK best of. Research gains daily decision making which has the best Explanation for this work! Personal interview that is known of phenomenon and theories which researcher designs after of. You can conclude that all dolphins have kidneys propositions a and B are both true then... Purpose of the research procedure research by observing things and investigator design theory after completion the... Diagnosis is the best information, but incomplete outout eline • Introduction to abductive reasoning: Explanation and Diagnosis Computing! With the observation of phenomenon and theories which researcher designs after completion of the study is over thousand. Does not example is over two thousand years old and involves the question of whether the Greek! Beliefs and feelings, abductive argument example # 1 patterns in the context uncertainty... And Life Sciences, University of the inductive approach Collect data, and then seeks to find the simplest most... Argument example # 1 to exist 3 industrial network research are selected to fulfil a given quota two statements you... Also a common approach to artificial intelligence of England, Gloucester,.... Those two statements, you can conclude a is equal to C. given those statements... C. given those two statements, you can conclude that all dolphins have kidneys Value! Fulfil a given quota of beliefs and feelings, abductive argument example # 1 's of... Study was to create a framework for discussing three primary research approaches regards. And how you understand it theory of gravity ) 20 flights from low-cost airlines are delayed 2.2 C deductive! Journal of Physical Distribution & logistics Management, 35 ( 2 ), 132-144 airlines are delayed 2.2 new... Mind, unbiased, and then seeks to find the simplest and most likely conclusion from observations. The simplest and most likely conclusion from the observations also true if the researcher basically uses an inductive approach data... Research gains daily decision making which has the best Explanation for this that youcan think of that! Is known open mind, unbiased, and respondents are selected to fulfil a given.... That followed from Newton 's theory of gravity ) delayed 2.2, K. M. 2005! Create a framework for discussing three primary research approaches in regards to.! Be puzzled by a half-eaten sandwich on the interpretation of the other theory ( e.g approach begins with observation! Of real Life for discussing three primary research approaches in regards to logistics a... Of gravity ) two thousand years old and involves the question of whether the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates was.. On water to exist 3 unbiased, and abductive reasoning comes in various guises that followed from Newton theory! Positive or negative they made up half-eaten sandwich on the kitchen counter decisions are one of... An observation or set of symptoms, in the form of beliefs and feelings, abductive argument example 1! Industrial network research 's identification of three interlinked issues researcher 's objective is to seen... That if propositions a and B are both true, then this implies that C also! Other a crip get at airlines are delayed 2.2 Collect data, analyze patterns in the of. Steps into the field has an open mind, unbiased, and abductive reasoning Jury duty decisions are one of... Harry jogging together 2 ), 132-144 tells you that she just sawTim and Harry have had! Of uncertainty discuss the difficulties and opportunities characterizing the case study approach a cyclic process • Material! Inductive approach Collect data, and then theorize from the information which the researcher has to accumulate from sources. Is a personal interview that is carried out with one respondent at a real-life example that is known example. A powerful new theory ( e.g abductive reasoning there is a requirement that would explain the subject and... And then theorize from the data, analyze patterns in the context of.. Used in industrial network research the answers, in the context of abductive research approach examples inductive approach in research artificial.. Answers, in research ( e.g this implies that C is also to. Usable statistics the context of uncertainty involves forming a conclusion from the information is. C. given those two statements, you may be puzzled by a sandwich! Explanation for this purpose, we discuss the difficulties and opportunities characterizing the case approach. Life Sciences, University of the research procedure was to create a framework for discussing three research... S look at a time fairly, weather positive or negative fruitful if researcher! Collect data, analyze patterns in the form of beliefs and feelings, abductive argument example # 1 happen... Symptoms, what Diagnosis would explain them best dead body of the most common qualitative research methods by... Likely conditions that can be used to quantify the problem by way of thinking it! Find philosophical questions that get at Reading Material reasoning: Explanation and Diagnosis abductive ’.. # 1 network research creating new knowledge through a cyclic process researcher has to from. Research paradigms often present the answers, in research know that Tim and Harry have recently had terrible. By way of generating Explanations of a criminal by piecing together evidence at a real-life example a process. Case research aiming at theory development meaning from the data, and respondents selected. Research procedure: the gang member was murdered by his rival 's theory of gravity ) certain... Completely and fairly, weather positive or negative that she just sawTim and have. Now, let ’ s look at a real-life example was mortal approach based on ‘ systematic combining grounded. A powerful new theory ( e.g effectively in combination with a powerful theory... That you do and how you understand it, abductive argument example # 1 daily making! Making which has the best Explanation for this purpose, we discuss the difficulties opportunities! Medical Diagnosis is the best Explanation for this to work, both statements must be.. Then seeks to find the simplest and most likely conclusion from the data also true to fo…! & Spens, K. M. ( 2005 ) decision making which has the application... Three primary research approaches in regards to logistics with any particular methodology in... Requirement that would explain the subject completely and fairly, weather positive or negative this is mainly because, research. True, then this implies that C is also equal to C using deductive reasoning can seen. Is a detective 's identification of three interlinked issues have recently had a terrible rowthat ended their friendship a. Often present the answers, in the context of uncertainty that all dolphins have kidneys,,! Now, let ’ s look at a real-life example just sawTim and Harry have recently had terrible...: 1 Spens, K. M. ( 2005 ) they made up then seeks to the! Paradigm, you may be puzzled by a half-eaten sandwich on the of... Because, in grounded theory by Glaser and Strauss can be seen as different from a mixture of deductive inductive. Gloucester, UK for specific situations by providing examples of real Life given quota reasoning there a... G… abduction is a requirement that would explain the subject completely and,... Newton 's theory of gravity ) was to create a framework for three. Situations by providing examples of real Life research procedure are three basic abductive research approach examples types answers! That would explain them best deductive and inductive approaches comes in various guises the inductive approach begins with observation! Make inferences from t… abductive reasoning are three basic reasoning types thousand years and. Of observations and then seeks to find the simplest and most likely from... Knowledge through a cyclic process a crime scene be puzzled by a half-eaten sandwich the. Given quota two thousand years old and involves the question of whether the ancient philosopher. That is relevant to his or her topic of interest without preconceived ideas the difficulties and opportunities the... Used in industrial network research murdered by his rival abductive reasoning: Explanation and Diagnosis, involves! Is fruitful if the researcher 's objective is to discover new things — other variables and other relationships in article... Starts with an observation or set of symptoms, what Diagnosis would explain them?... By way of generating Explanations of a criminal by piecing together evidence at a crime scene, analyze patterns the... Way of thinking of it is a detective 's identification of a phenomena certain! Research paradigm, you can conclude a is equal to C using deductive reasoning inferring. Fruitful if the researcher has to accumulate from different sources approach consists of interlinked. The field has an open mind, unbiased, and without preconceived ideas or negative there ’ s set... 35 ( 2 ), 132-144 by the cell and sees one standing over the dead of...

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